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Original article Validation of the Korean Academy of Geriatric Dentistry screening questionnaire and oral frailty diagnostic criteria in community-dwelling older adults
Jeong-Hyun Kang1orcid , Seong-Chan Park2orcid , Hoi-In Jung3orcid , Sun Jae Jung4,5orcid , Hye-Jin Park2orcid , Soo-Min Kim2orcid , Min-Ji Jo2orcid , Yun-Seon Lee2orcid , Sunyoung Han2orcid
Epidemiol Health 2024;e2024008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024008 [Accepted]
Published online: December 11, 2023
1Clinic of Oral Medicine and Orofacial Pain, Institute of Oral Health Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
2Department of Dental Hygiene, Wonju, Korea
3Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
4Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
5Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author:  Sunyoung Han,
Email: syhan0724@yonsei.ac.kr
Received: 13 October 2023   • Revised: 17 November 2023   • Accepted: 18 November 2023
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OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to establish the validity—specifically, the sensitivity and specificity—of the screening questionnaire and diagnostic criteria for oral frailty proposed by the Korean Academy of Geriatric Dentistry (KAGD) among community-dwelling older adults.
METHODS
This study enrolled 100 participants. Among various definitions of oral frailty, this study used the criteria proposed by Tanaka as the reference test. The screening questionnaire consisted of 11 items for screening physical frailty, chewing ability, swallowing difficulties, oral dryness, and tongue and lip motor function. Each question had a different scoring weight, and if the total score was 1 or higher, an oral frailty diagnostic examination proposed by the KAGD would be recommended. The diagnostic test was the oral frailty diagnostic criteria proposed by the KAGD including 6 measures: chewing ability, occlusal force, tongue pressure, oral dryness, swallowing difficulty, and oral hygiene. If a participant exhibited 2 or more positive measures, this participant was classified as “oral frail.” The screening questionnaire was analyzed using a cut-off value of 1 or higher, while the diagnostic criteria utilized a cut-off of 2 or more positive measures. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated.
RESULTS
The screening questionnaire showed significant power for screening oral frailty (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.783; sensitivity, 87.8%; specificity, 52.5%). The diagnostic accuracy of the newly proposed diagnostic criteria was acceptable (sensitivity, 95.1%; specificity, 42.4%).
CONCLUSIONS
The newly proposed screening questionnaire and diagnostic criteria in Korea appear to be a useful tool to identify oral frailty in community-dwelling older adults.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health